What increases the neuronal plasticity of endogenous NSCs after focal cerebral ischemia?

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

15-Jul-2014

Contact: Meng Zhao eic@nrren.org 86-138-049-98773 Neural Regeneration Research

Stem cells can substitute the lost cells after central nervous system injury, decrease nervous tissue damage and promote neurofunctional recovery. Many brain injury models, including middle cerebral artery occlusion and traumatic brain injury models, have confirmed that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate from subventricular zone to injured cerebral cortex. But the mechanism underlying activation of endogenous NSCs in the ischemic brain remains unclear. Dr. Hyung-Seok Kim, Chonnam National University Medical School, Korea and his team revealed that NSCs were activated sequentially after focal cerebral ischemia and validated that early expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor increase the neuronal plasticity of activated endogenous NSCs after focal cerebral ischemia. Moreover, neural precursor cells after large-scale cortical injury could be recruited from the cortex nearby infarct core and subventricular zone. Related results were published in Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 9, 2014).

Article: ” Early expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor increase the neuronal plasticity of activated endogenous neural stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia” by Seung Song1, Jong-Tae Park1, Joo Young Na1, Man-Seok Park2, Jeong-Kil Lee3, Min-Cheol Lee4, Hyung-Seok Kim1, 4 (1 Department of Forensic Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea; 2 Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea; 3 Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea; 4 Department of Pathology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea)

Song S, Park JT, Na JY, Park MS, Lee JK, Lee MC, Kim HS. Early expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor increase the neuronal plasticity of activated endogenous neural stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia. Neural Regen Res. 2014;9(9):912-918.

Contact: Meng Zhao eic@nrren.org 86-138-049-98773 Neural Regeneration Research http://www.nrronline.org/

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UC Davis Researchers' Discovery Has Implications for Developing Treatments for Deafness

Sacramento, Calif. (PRWEB) July 15, 2014

Researchers at UC Davis School of Medicine have for the first time shown that a polysialylated glycoprotein that regulates neurodevelopment exists on the surface of cells in the adult inner ear. This biomarker of early cells allows researchers to identify immature cells so that they can be used for further research and possible treatment. The discovery, published online in the journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, opens the door to developing stem cell replacement treatments in the inner ear to treat certain hearing disorders.

Hearing loss is a complex process and is usually regarded as irreversible, said Frederic A. Troy II, principal investigator of the study and professor emeritus of biochemistry and molecular medicine, and a member of the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center. Finding this molecule in the inner ear that is known to be associated with early development may change that view.

Having a biomarker for immature stem cells could make it possible to isolate neural stem cells from the adult inner ear in a person with hearing loss, induce their replication and maturation in the laboratory, and then re-introduce them back into the inner ear as functioning neurons. It is postulated that they may recolonize and establish themselves, thereby improving hearing.

During development, certain glycoproteins (carbohydrate-protein linked molecules) that are expressed on cell surfaces serve critical functions essential to the normal growth and organization of the brain. One member of the class of cell-surface glycoproteins is an unusual molecule called polysialic acid (polySia). Its large size fills up spaces between cells and its strong electric charge repels other molecules, qualities that help to prevent cells from adhering or attaching to one another and thereby promoting cell movement to other areas.

The predominant carriers of polySia in the brain are neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs), which are glycoproteins expressed on neuronal cell surfaces. As their name suggests, NCAMs by themselves are important in helping cells stick together and stay in one place. But when an NCAM becomes modified with polysialic acid (becomes polysialylated), the cells gain the ability to migrate to new areas. Re-expression of the anti-adhesive polySia glycan on the surface of many adult human cancer cells, for example, facilitates their detachment, thus enhancing their metastatic spread. PolySia found on human leukocytes also modulates immune function.

Neural stem cells with these polySia-NCAMs on their surfaces are important in embryonic development because they are able to travel throughout the body where they can differentiate into specialized cells. During adulthood, neural stem cells with polySia-NCAMs may migrate to injured areas and promote healing.

The landscape of the cell surface of developing cells is decorated with a bewildering array of informational-rich sugar-protein molecules of which polysialylated NCAMs are of chief importance, explained Troy. During the life of a cell, these surface molecules are critical to cellular proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation and survival essential processes for normal embryonic development and tissue regeneration in adults.

Although it was already well known that cells expressing polySia-NCAM exist in the central nervous system, this study is the first to document that they are also in the peripheral nervous system, specifically in the spiral ganglia, groups of nerve cells located in the inner ear that are essential to hearing.

Working with adult cells isolated from the inner ear spiral ganglia of guinea pigs, Troys team was able to show that they expressed both polySia and NCAM. The polySia component was abundantly present on neural stem cells but markedly reduced on mature cells, implicating the polySia-NCAM complex as being present on immature cells and able to serve as a biomarker to identify these cells.

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Pluristem Initiates Trial in South Korea – Analyst Blog

Pluristem Therapeutics Inc. ( PSTI ) announced that it has initiated a phase II trial in South Korea to evaluate PLacental eXpanded (PLX) cells for the treatment of intermittent claudication (IC).

The study is being conducted by partner CHA Bio & Diostech.

We note that CHA Bio & Diostech has an exclusive licensing agreement with Pluristem to evaluate PLX cells for peripheral artery disease (PAD) in South Korea.

As per the terms of the agreement, both Pluristem and CHA will enter into a joint venture to share the revenues and income generated through sales of PLX cell therapies in the South Korean market if and when a candidate receives approval in South Korea.

We remind investors that Pluristem received approval from the South Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to conduct trials in South Korea evaluating the use PLX cells in May 2014.

Meanwhile, trials on PLX cells for the treatment of IC are ongoing in the U.S., Germany and Israel.

Pluristem develops placenta-based cell therapies in collaboration with companies like United Therapeutics ( UTHR ) or through research and clinical institutions. The cells from placenta, known as PLX cells, are derived using the company’s proprietary PluriX therapy.

Celgene Cellular Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Celgene Corp. ( CELG ), is also doing research on stem cells derived from the human placenta as well as from the umbilical cord for the treatment of different diseases.

Pluristem currently carries a Zacks Rank #3 (Hold). Investors looking for better-ranked stocks in the broader healthcare sector might consider Actelion ( ALIOF ), carrying a Zacks Rank #1 (Strong Buy).

PLURISTEM THERA (PSTI): Free Stock Analysis Report

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AP Top News at 11:14 p.m. EDT

Your daily look at late-breaking news, upcoming events and the stories that will be talked about Thursday: 1. WHY U.S. WANTS MORE SECURITY AT FOREIGN AIRPORTS WASHINGTON (AP) Intelligence officials are concerned about a new al-Qaida effort to create a bomb that would go undetected through airport security, according to a counterterrorism official, prompting the U.S. to call for tighter security measures Wednesday at some foreign airports. The counterterrorism official, who would not be named because he was not authorized to discuss the matter publicly, declined to describe the kind of information that triggered this warning. But officials in the past have raised concerns about non-metallic explosives being surgically implanted inside a traveler’s body, designed to be undetectable in pat-downs or metal detectors. WASHINGTON (AP) A lawyer for a Libyan militant charged in the 2012 Benghazi attacks said Wednesday that she had seen no evidence tying her client to the violence, but a judge nonetheless directed Ahmed Abu Khattala to remain in custody as the Justice Department builds its case against him. The lawyer, Michelle Peterson, conceded that Abu Khattala had no reasonable chance of being released at the moment, given the terrorism-related charge he faces and his lack of ties to the United States. But she also argued that prosecutors had failed to show, in their broad and initial outlines of the case, that he was in any way connected to the Sept. 11, 2012 attacks that killed Ambassador Chris Stevens and three other Americans. Matthew Coniglio’s Georgia home held a trove of child pornography, more than 50,000 images and videos stored on laptops, external hard drives and thumb drives. Among the stash, hidden in a bedside table turned around to conceal the doors, authorities made an even more horrifying discovery: 56 8-millimeter cassette tapes they say show him raping and molesting girls. GIOIA TAURO, Italy (AP) A United States cargo vessel loaded with hundreds of tons of Syria’s chemical weapons left an Italian port Wednesday to destroy the arms at sea as part of the international effort to rid Syria of its chemical weapon stockpile. The MV Cape Ray steamed out of the southern Italian port of Gioia Tauro after a 12-hour operation to transfer the chemicals from a Danish ship, the Ark Futura. SEOUL, South Korea (AP) Chinese President Xi Jinping has arrived in South Korea for a two-day summit that snubs North Korea and looks to bolster an already booming trade relationship with the South. North Korea made its anger clear ahead of Xi’s Thursday arrival with a flurry of recent rocket and missile tests, the latest on Wednesday. Pyongyang is threatening more missile tests. CHARLESTON, S.C. (AP) As one of the year’s busiest travel weekends approaches, so does another visitor: Tropical Storm Arthur, expected to grow into a hurricane by the Fourth of July and hit most harshly at North Carolina’s Outer Banks, a popular getaway spot of thin barrier islands along the shore. The first named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season prompted a hurricane warning for a wide swath of the North Carolina coast and had officials, hotel owners and would-be vacationers as far north as New England carefully watching forecasts. NEW YORK (AP) U.S. and Japanese scientists who reported that they’d found a startlingly simple way to make stem cells withdrew that claim Wednesday, admitting to “extensive” errors in the research. In two papers published in January in the journal Nature, the researchers said that they’d been able to transform ordinary mouse cells into versatile stem cells by exposing them to a mildly acidic environment. Someday, scientists hope to harness stem cells to grow replacement tissue for treating a variety of diseases.

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Top journal retracts "game-changer" stem-cell study

PARIS: Leading science journal Nature said on Wednesday it had withdrawn a flawed stem-cell study hailed when it was published in January as a “game-changer” in the quest to grow transplant tissue.

The decision, touching on the biggest controversy in scientific publishing in a decade, was taken after mistakes were discovered in some data published in two papers, photograph captions were found to be misleading, and the work itself could not be repeated by other scientists, it said.

“All co-authors of both papers have finally concluded that they cannot stand behind the papers, and have decided to retract them,” the journal said in an editorial.

The controversy is the biggest in scientific publishing in a decade. Nature said it would tighten procedures to vet future studies submitted for publication.

On June 4, Japan’s Riken research institute said lead scientist Haruko Obokata, 30, had agreed to retract the papers after an investigation.

Riken was “still discussing” a retraction with co-author Charles Vacanti of Harvard University, a Riken spokeswoman said at the time.

Obokata was feted after unveiling findings that appeared to show a straight-forward way to reprogramme adult cells to become stem cells — precursors that are capable of developing into any other cell in the human body.

Identifying a readily-manufacturable supply of stem cells could one day help meet a need for transplant tissues, or even whole organs.

The researchers claimed to have created so-called Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency (STAP) stem cells.

They said white blood cells in newborn mice were returned to a versatile state by incubating them in a solution with high acidity for 25 minutes, followed by a five-minute spin in a centrifuge and a seven-day spell of immersion in a growth culture.

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Flawed 'game-changing' stem-cell study withdrawn

Wednesday 02 July 2014 14.29

Leading science journal Nature has withdrawn a flawed stem-cell study which was hailed as a “game-changer” in the quest to grow transplant tissue when it was published in January.

The decision was taken after mistakes were discovered in some data published in two papers, photograph captions were found to be misleading, and the work itself could not be repeated by other scientists, it said.

“All co-authors of both papers have finally concluded that they can not stand behind the papers, and have decided to retract them,” the journal said in an editorial.

The controversy is the biggest in scientific publishing in a decade. Nature said it would tighten procedures to vet future studies submitted for publication.

On 4 June, Japan’s Riken research institute said lead scientist Haruko Obokata had agreed to retract the papers after an investigation.

Riken was “still discussing” a retraction with co-author Charles Vacanti of Harvard University, a spokeswoman said at the time.

Ms Obokata was feted after unveiling findings that appeared to show a straight-forward way to reprogramme adult cells to become stem cells – precursors that are capable of developing into any other cell in the human body.

Identifying a readily-manufacturable supply of stem cells could one day help meet a need for transplant tissues, or even whole organs for transplant.

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Stem cell therapy industry is booming in Korea – Stem Cell …

Approval of stem cell therapeutic products is progressing slowly around the world. There are many hurdles in manufacturing, business development and regulation of these highly complex biological products. Today, Ill look at experience of one particular country South Korea. This month we have a special event one year anniversary of the first stem cell drug approval on the market!

(Photo credit: Reuters/Jo Yong-Hak)

In the last couple of years S. Korea has achieved a significant progress in development and marketing of stem cell therapy products. Recently, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) allowed somewhat rapid commercialization track for candidate stem cell products. I think, its kind of unique experience, which we can observe and learn from.

The chronology of stem cell drugs approval in S. Korea: July 2011 HeartiCellgram-AMI (FCB PharmiCell) January 2012 Cartistem (Medipost) January 2012 Cupistem (Anterogen)

A new potential approval, expecting this year: LiverCellgram (FCB PharmiCell).

Clinical trials: There is a good number of stem cell clinical trials ongoing in S. Korea. These trials involve all types of stem cells, including embryonic. Recently, CHA Bio & Diostech got an authorization by KFDA for the first embryonic stem cell trial. CHA Bio has a licensing agreement with Advanced Cell Technology and will utilize their ES-derived RPE cells in patients with Stargardts Macular Dystrophy.

One of Korean articles (with a link to KFDA as a source) indicates 22 KFD-approved stem cell clinical trials. Out of 22, 13 trials were ongoing and 9 were completed.

The significant part of stem cell clinical trials in Korea is sponsored by companies (industry). In the recent opinion piece, Il-Hoan Oh indicated 15 industry-sponsored (conducted by 6 companies) KFDA-approved stem cell therapeutic trials. You can look at this list here (.pdf)

I was able to track 9 registered stem cell clinical trials in 2011 and 6 (so far) this year. You can search for it in NCT and CRIS databases.

Regulation: Id like to point out some unique features of stem cell drugs development in S. Korea: 1. Market approval before release of peer-reviewed data KFDA made a decision to give a fast track for commercial stem cell products through marketing approval. This experiment has caused different opinions among experts:

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Medical breakthrough in Peoria to be featured in special report

June 26, 2014 Updated Jun 26, 2014 at 7:46 PM CDT

PEORIA, Ill — There’s a emerging medical science that could save countless lives one day and some of it is happening right here in Central Illinois.

Two-year-old Hannah Warren came all the way from Korea to Peoria, Illinois last year for a chance to live.

“This is Hannah and she doesn’t have a trachea and I said, ‘how is she alive?,” recalled Dr. Mark Holterman, a Pediatric Surgeon at Children’s Hospital of Illinois.

Two Peoria doctors assisted a Dr. Macchiarini from Sweden in an advanced regenerative procedure. They built Hannah a new trachea from her own stem cells.

Children’s Hospital of Illinois Chief Surgeon Dr. Richard Pearl said, “About 60 hours later after it incubated, we took to the operating room and placed that trachea into Hannah.”

Doctors deemed the surgery a success.

“It was starting to incorporate blood vessels. We knew the trachea was working,” said Dr. Pearl.

Unfortunately she died two months later from respiratory complications.

“The fact that she died was a tragedy,” said Pearl. “The whole thing was heartbreaking, but scientifically it was a leap forward.”

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South – korea | StemCell Therapy MD

ALAMEDA, Calif.(BUSINESS WIRE)

BioTime, Inc. (NYSE MKT: BTX), an Alameda-based company engaged in research and development of innovative new products in the field of regenerative medicine utilizing stem cells and related technology, announced today that it has formed a new wholly owned subsidiary, BioTime Acquisition Corporation, to pursue opportunities and acquire assets and businesses in the fields of stem cells and regenerative medicine. Thomas Okarma, PhD, MD, will serve as the Chief Executive Officer and as a member of the board of directors of BioTimes new subsidiary. Dr. Okarma is the former President and Chief Executive Officer of Geron Corporation and served on that companys board of directors.

Since 2010, BioTime has expanded the scope of its business through strategic acquisitions and has been continually exploring other acquisition opportunities in its fields of interest. BioTimes strategic acquisitions include:

Global advances on multiple fronts of stem cell biology have established the foundation for an integrative business approach to consolidate and translate these discoveries into products that may revolutionize clinical medicine, said Thomas Okarma, the new companys CEO. Living cell therapies can now be scalably manufactured, efficiently distributed to points of care, and tested in controlled clinical trials.The goal of regenerative medicine is to go beyond the reach of pills and scalpels to achieve a new level of healing that may, after a single administration of therapeutic cells, permanently restore function to tissues and organs damaged by chronic disease or injury. BioTime Acquisition Corporation intends to build its business by identifying, consolidating, and commercially developing the best available cell therapy technologies to realize the potential of regenerative medicine. Ultimately, the goal is to bring these new therapies to the many millions of patients who need them.

The breadth of Dr. Okarmas experience in the field of cell-based therapeutics is simply spectacular, said Michael D. West, PhD, BioTimes Chief Executive Officer. We look forward to working together with him to translate these new scientific advances into commercial products for the large and growing markets driven by age-related degenerative diseases.

Dr. Okarma has had a distinguished career as a physician and an innovator and executive in the biotechnology industry. Dr. Okarma served as Gerons President, Chief Executive Officer, and as a member of its board of directors from July 1999 until February 2011, after having previously served as that companys Vice President of Research and Development and Vice President of Cell Therapies. In 1985, Dr. Okarma founded Applied Immune Sciences, Inc. (AIS) and served initially as its Vice President of Research and Development and subsequently as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and as a director until that company was acquired by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer in 1995. After that acquisition, Dr. Okarma served as a Senior Vice President at Rhone-Poulenc Rorer until December 1996. From 1980 to 1992, Dr. Okarma was a member of the faculty of the Department of Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Okarma holds an AB from Dartmouth College, an MD and PhD from Stanford University, and is a graduate of the Executive Education program of the Stanford Graduate School of Business.

About BioTime, Inc.

BioTime, headquartered in Alameda, California, is a biotechnology company focused on regenerative medicine and blood plasma volume expanders. Its broad platform of stem cell technologies is enhanced through subsidiaries focused on specific fields of application. BioTime develops and markets research products in the fields of stem cells and regenerative medicine, including a wide array of proprietary ACTCellerate cell lines, HyStem hydrogels, culture media, and differentiation kits. BioTime is developing Renevia (formerly known as HyStem-Rx), a biocompatible, implantable hyaluronan and collagen-based matrix for cell delivery in human clinical applications. BioTimes therapeutic product development strategy is pursued through subsidiaries that focus on specific organ systems and related diseases for which there is a high unmet medical need. BioTimes majority owned subsidiary Cell Cure Neurosciences Ltd. is developing therapeutic products derived from stem cells for the treatment of retinal and neural degenerative diseases. BioTimes subsidiary OrthoCyte Corporation is developing therapeutic applications of stem cells to treat orthopedic diseases and injuries. Another subsidiary, OncoCyte Corporation, focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of stem cell technology in cancer, including the diagnostic product PanC-Dx currently being developed for the detection of cancer in blood samples. ReCyte Therapeutics, Inc. is developing applications of BioTimes proprietary induced pluripotent stem cell technology to reverse the developmental aging of human cells to treat cardiovascular and blood cell diseases. BioTimes subsidiary LifeMap Sciences, Inc. markets GeneCards, the leading human gene database, and is developing an integrated database suite to complement GeneCards that will also include the LifeMap database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine, and MalaCards, the human disease database. LifeMap will also market BioTime research products. BioTimes lead product, Hextend, is a blood plasma volume expander manufactured and distributed in the U.S. by Hospira, Inc. and in South Korea by CJ CheilJedang Corporation under exclusive licensing agreements. Additional information about BioTime can be found on the web at www.biotimeinc.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

Statements pertaining to future financial and/or operating results, future growth in research, technology, clinical development, and potential opportunities for BioTime and its subsidiaries, along with other statements about the future expectations, beliefs, goals, plans, or prospects expressed by management constitute forward-looking statements. Any statements that are not historical fact (including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as will, believes, plans, anticipates, expects, estimates) should also be considered to be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, risks inherent in the development and/or commercialization of potential products, uncertainty in the ability to identify and complete potential acquisitions, the ability to realize anticipated benefits of and achieve expected financial performance following completed acquisitions, the results of clinical trials or regulatory approvals, need and ability to obtain future capital, and maintenance of intellectual property rights. Actual results may differ materially from the results anticipated in these forward-looking statements and as such should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that affect the business of BioTime and its subsidiaries, particularly those mentioned in the cautionary statements found in BioTimes Securities and Exchange Commission filings. BioTime disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

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South – korea | StemCell Therapy MD

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BioTime Subsidiary Asterias Biotherapeutics Announces Investment by CEO

The Board of Directors of Asterias is honored that Pedro elected to join Asterias as CEO and is very pleased that he also chose to make a significant financial commitment to the company, said Alfred D. Kingsley, Chairman of the Asterias Board of Directors. With Pedro at the helm, Asterias is focused on its efforts to develop and commercialize therapies that have the potential to treat patients with serious unmet medical needs. In particular, Pedro will lead Asterias through the process of advancing its lead clinical-stage programs, AST-OPC1 for the treatment of spinal cord injury and the AST-VAC2 allogeneic dendritic cell cancer immunotherapy platform.

I believe in Asterias technology, its therapeutic programs, and its talented employees and am committed to making the company a success, remarked Mr. Lichtinger. My efforts as the companys CEO will focus on developing innovative therapies for critically ill and chronically ill patients, and creating significant value over time for Asterias shareholders.

About Asterias

Asterias Biotherapeutics is a biotechnology company focused on the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Our core technologies center on stem cells capable of becoming all of the cell types in the human body, a property called pluripotency. We plan to develop therapies based on pluripotent stem cells to treat diseases or injuries in a variety of medical fields, with an initial focus on the therapeutic applications of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (AST-OPC1) and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (AST-VAC1 and AST-VAC2) for the fields of neurology and oncology respectively. AST-OPC1 was tested for treatment of spinal cord injury in the worlds first Phase 1 clinical trial using human embryonic stem cell-derived cells. We plan to seek FDA clearance to reinitiate clinical testing of AST-OPC1 in spinal cord injury this year, and are also evaluating its function in nonclinical models of multiple sclerosis and stroke. AST-VAC1 and AST-VAC2 are dendritic cell-based vaccines designed to immunize cancer patients against telomerase, a protein abnormally expressed in over 95% of human cancer types. AST-VAC2 differs from AST-VAC1 in that the dendritic cells presenting telomerase to the immune system are produced from human embryonic stem cells instead of being derived from human blood.

In October of 2013, Asterias acquired the cell therapy assets of Geron Corporation. These assets included INDs for the clinical stage AST-OPC1 and AST-VAC1 programs, banks of cGMP-manufactured AST-OPC1 drug product, cGMP master and working cell banks of human embryonic stem cells, over 400 patents and patent applications filed worldwide including broad issued claims to fundamental platform technologies for the scalable growth of pluripotent stem cells and compositions of matter for several hESC-derived therapeutic cell types, research cell banks, customized reagents and equipment, and various assets relating to the AST-VAC2 program and preclinical programs in cardiology and orthopedics.

Asterias is a member of the BioTime family of companies.

Additional information about Asterias can be found at www.asteriasbiotherapeutics.com.

About BioTime

BioTime is a biotechnology company engaged in research and product development in the field of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine refers to therapies based on stem cell technology that are designed to rebuild cell and tissue function lost due to degenerative disease or injury. BioTimes focus is on pluripotent stem cell technology based on human embryonic stem (hES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. hES and iPS cells provide a means of manufacturing every cell type in the human body and therefore show considerable promise for the development of a number of new therapeutic products. BioTimes therapeutic and research products include a wide array of proprietary PureStem progenitors, HyStem hydrogels, culture media, and differentiation kits. BioTime is developing Renevia (a HyStem product) as a biocompatible, implantable hyaluronan and collagen-based matrix for cell delivery in human clinical applications, and is planning to initiate a pivotal clinical trial around Renevia, in 2014. In addition, BioTime has developed Hextend, a blood plasma volume expander for use in surgery, emergency trauma treatment and other applications. Hextend is manufactured and distributed in the U.S. by Hospira, Inc. and in South Korea by CJ HealthCare Corporation, under exclusive licensing agreements.

BioTime is also developing stem cell and other products for research, therapeutic, and diagnostic use through its subsidiaries:

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